How To Be Compelling, How To Structure A Great Speech & How To Deliver A Memorable Message.

I cannot overemphasise the importance of rhetoric and the Ethos Pathos Logos trilogy enough.

I have always said that communication is THE most important transferable skill one can endow themselves with.

You can be a genuine expert in software development, mechanical engineering, biochemistry, financial markets… anything. And these skills alone will ensure you are treated well. These are skills the world needs, and you have worked hard to acquire. But do these singular expertise alone write you success?

NO – certainly not.

These skills can only realise your potential if they are practised alongside sophisticated, smart and effective communication. Unless a message is spread it can never be heard.

Aristotle, one of those Greek philosophers you have surely heard of, thought the same.

He laid out a framework for effective oration that is so Lindy is has stood stall through the iterations of time. A simple framework for establishing your authority as a speaker, emotionally connecting with your audience and then logically persuading them in tow.

It is Ethos, Pathos Logos.

What Does Ethos, Pathos, Logos Mean?

In the words of Aristotle himself…

“Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker [ethos]; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind [pathos]; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself [logos]. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker’s personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.”


There you have it! The three tier system of a great speech. Now let’s dig in a little bit deeper.


An appeal to credibility and authority. Who are you to be making this point? If I am to speak about politics must I not first come from a point of authority? Ethos is established by verbally signalling, and in other words, whatever credentials are littered throughout your resume.

Are economic messages better received from those speaking who are informed or those uninformed. By an economist or a local?

Who are you to be making this point? Your audience must believe you have a sense of credibility and authority if they are to take your message seriously.

This point of Ethos has become abused recently with the identity politics phenomenon. All of a sudden if you start your message with… “As a black man” or “As a woman” then you are actually appealing to the Socratic Ethos he spoke about thousands of years ago. You are establishing credibility and authority with your audience that what you are about to say is coming from a voice of authority.

It becomes abused when the message that follows is one that could have been made independent of whatever Ethos you established. It then weakens the strength of a true Ethos in future speaking.

A credible Ethos is one of authenticity separated from some cheap form of signalling.


This is (in my opinion) the most important part of the message.

Your emotional appeal.

What personal anecdote can you draw upon to support the morale of your message? What story is there available that is going to allow your audience to relate best? If I am making an appeal to justify Covid-19 lockdown, then it would support my case to mention the nice and relatable family whose eldest son died from the disease because the gas station attendant wasn’t wearing a mask. If only we had all followed the rules and remained in lockdown.

… you see? This is a theme so classic to history. Emotions blow facts out of the water. One tough emotional appeal will wipe away all rational, systematic responses that you might have made before.

These are the questions Pathos works to solve. The Pathos does not need necessarily tug at the heartstrings. Pathos can be humour, it can be shocking, it can be scary. Pathos is the emotional drawcard of the speech.

You start with Ethos to establish your authority, then you follow with Pathos to to make your audience care about what you are saying… and then.


Logos is where facts enter the equation.

By this stage of the speech you have already established your authority and connected with the audience on an emotional level. They are ready to listen to what you are going to say. So now you double down on your point by hammering home the facts supporting your claim.

Logos is the facts and figures. If I am to draw upon the Covid-19 example I made in Pathos. I might end the speech by saying that there is a 60% decrease in infection if you wear a mask than if you don’t. I could say that lockdowns are going to save thousands of people. The Logos kicks in right at the end.

You are already convinced of what I am saying (assuming ethos and pathos were done right), so what I achieve with Logos is essentially the speeches staying power. The emotional appeal and then the facts supporting the appeal is what people remember.

Aristotle had a tip for the logicians here…

The most effective use of Logos is to encourage your audience to reach the conclusion to your argument on their own, just moments before your big reveal. They will relish in the fact that they were clever enough to figure it out, and the reveal will be that much more satisfying.

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